Part 4: Measurement and Data Handling
The second grade continues to build on what the learners have learnt in Grade R and Grade one. This year introduces new forms of measurement. Measuring units that have not been used before are introduced to the learners. Grade 2s begin using formal instruments for the measuring they do.
Time: From hours in a day to months in a year
Grade twos learn to tell the time in units of hours. They can tell twelve-hour time. The units they use are quarter hours, half hours and full hours.
Second graders can place a number of details onto a calendar. They can show where events should go. These events include school and historical events. A pupil this age will also be able to correctly show where public holidays and religious festivals belong on the calendar. Grade two can show which days birthdays are on as well.
These all build on their fundamental time-telling skills. Grade 2s can put the months of the year in order, and also the days of the week.
Time: Calculating the length and passing of time
Second graders can grasp using calendars and clocks. They can use these devices to work out periods of time. They learn to use clocks to measure half hours and full hours. They can use calendars to describe and work out weeks and days.
Grade 2s continue to become more adept at using measurements that are informal. They can utilise counters, pencil lengths, hand spans, paces and other informal units. The students learn to apply these to objects as well. For example they could say that a desk is as long as five pencil cases.
The concepts of being wider, taller, shorter or longer can be discussed with understanding.
This year introduces the idea of formal measurement to second graders. Meters begin to be used as the standard measurement. They do this with either lengths of string or meter sticks. Lengths of objects can be discussed in meters. Estimations, comparisons and proper measurements can be recorded. Objects can also be put in order of longest to shortest or vice versa.
The idea of what is lighter and heavier is grasped and can be discussed. Comparisons can be made in informal units. These include objects such as bricks and blocks. Balance scale can be used to record informal mass units. Pupils can measure, estimate and put objects in order.
The mass of something can be counted and described informally. For example a second grader could describe a heavier book as being as heavy as a brick.
Students begin to use formal measuring units this year. They will be able to use a scale to measure their own mass. They can use kilograms.
Second graders start to use products that indicate their mass on their packaging. In this way they begin to see and grasp what 1 kilogram of flour is, for example. These can then be recorded, compared and ordered.
Calculating Capacity and Volume
Grade twos continue to use informal units to talk about what containers can hold. They can estimate how many cups would fill a bottle, for example. They can also make the calculation when given water to confirm that. The second grade student can record and discuss the results. They will also be able to put in order what containers have less or more than others. For example, they could order spoons, cups and bottles from smallest to biggest. Or the other way around.
Second Grade introduces litres to the students as the formal unit of measurement for liquids. The pupils can then record the capacity of objects. The pupils learn to make comparisons, measurements and estimations as well.
Objects that have been commercially packaged can also then be organised and compared. So grade 2s understand the terms “5 litres of paint” or “2 litres of milk”. They grasp what is being measured by such statements. They can also make estimations concerning these units and objects.
Second graders can collect and collate information. They can gather data about the school or class as instructed. This can be done in order to answer questions that the teacher poses. They can organise the information gathered. They can also tally the information.
The students also learn to represent data. Grade 2 pupils can use simple pictographs to show the information that was either given to them or was gathered by them. They can show this in a one-to-one correspondence graph or chart.
Second graders are also able to interpret data. They can analyse the information in a simple pictograph. They will be able to answer questions about it.
Japari: The place for Grade 2s to be!
Japari is a school with staff committed to seeing second graders enjoy and grasp this year of school. With dedicated and loving teachers, grade 2s will become everything they can be in this schooling year.